Analysis and Countermeasures of harmful factors of

2022-09-25
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Analysis and Countermeasures of harmful factors of mechanical equipment

I. harmful factors of mechanical equipment

mechanical hazards include moving parts, static hazards and other hazards

1. Hazards of moving parts

this hazard mainly comes from dangerous parts of mechanical equipment, including:

(1) rotating parts, such as rotating shafts, bosses and holes, rotating connectors, mandrels, and rotating knife clamps, fan blades, flywheels, etc

(2) the bite between rotating parts and tangent moving parts, such as power transmission belt and its transmission wheel, chain and sprocket, etc

(3) the bite between the same rotating parts, such as gears, rolling mills, mixing wheels, etc

(4) the bite between rotating parts and fixed parts, such as rotating mixer and unprotected open shell mixer device

(5) dangerous parts of reciprocating motion or sliding, such as hammer body of forging hammer, sliding block of pressure machinery, blade of shear machine, tensile testing machine requiring constant speed motion, teeth at the edge of band saw, etc

(6) danger between rotating parts and sliding parts, such as mechanisms on the surface of some lithographic presses, textile mechanisms, etc

2. Static hazard factors

include static cutting tools and blades, prominent mechanical parts, sharp edges and rough surface parts of blanks, tools and equipment, as well as worktable planes that cause sliding and falling

3. Other hazard factors

flying tools, fixtures, mechanical parts, flying cuttings or workpieces, striking or wringing of running workpieces, etc

if the above hazards are not effectively controlled, such as improper protection of moving parts, lack of safety devices or failure of safety devices, equipment operation under abnormal conditions, imperfect safety operation procedures or operators' failure to operate according to the procedures, mechanical injury is likely to occur

II. Prevention of mechanical hazards

there are many kinds of mechanical equipment used in modern industrial production, and each has its own characteristics, but also has many commonalities. Therefore, it can be seen from the design, manufacture and inspection of mechanical equipment; Installation and use; Maintenance; Strengthen the prevention of mechanical injury accidents in various aspects of the working environment:

1. Preventive measures in the process of design and manufacturing

mechanical equipment manufacturing enterprises should design, manufacture and install safety protection devices at the same time when designing and manufacturing production equipment, so as to achieve the intrinsic safety of mechanical equipment, and do not leave problems to users. The specific requirements are:

(1) set up protective devices

the requirements are that all transmission belts, rotating shafts, transmission chains, couplings, pulleys, gears, flywheels, sprockets, electric saws and other dangerous parts and dangerous parts with a height of 2M must be set up with protective devices based on the plane of the operating position of the operator

requirements for protective devices:

a firmly installed, reliable performance, and sufficient strength and stiffness

b it is suitable for the operating conditions of machinery and equipment and does not hinder production and operation

c it is durable and does not affect equipment adjustment, repair, lubrication and inspection

d the protective device itself should not cause harm to the operator

e when the machine is abnormal, the protective device should have the function of preventing danger

f the electrical, electronic and mechanical components of the automatic protective device require accurate action, stable performance, and a method to check whether the circuit performance is reliable

(2) the convenience of inspection and maintenance must be considered in the design of machinery and equipment. If necessary, special inspection and maintenance tools or devices shall be provided with the equipment

(3) in order to prevent the running machinery and equipment or parts from exceeding the limit position, reliable limit devices should be configured

(4) the machine and equipment shall be equipped with reliable braking devices to ensure effective braking when approaching danger

(5) pneumatic and hydraulic transmission machinery of machinery and equipment shall be equipped with devices to control overpressure and prevent leakage

(6) the parts of the machine and equipment that are easy to be thrown out during high-speed operation should be designed with anti loosening devices and equipped with protective covers or protective devices

(7) when the operating position of the machine and equipment is more than 2m above the ground, it should be equipped with console, handrail, handrail, coaming, etc

(8) the control device of mechanical equipment should be installed at the operating position so that the operator can see the whole equipment. When all the controlled equipment cannot be seen at the console, an emergency switch must be installed at the appropriate position of the equipment

(9) all kinds of machinery and equipment must take noise prevention measures in the design, so that the noise of the machine is lower than the national noise standard

(10) all machinery and equipment that produce dust, harmful gases or harmful vapors in the process should adopt automatic feeding and automatic unloading devices as far as possible, and must have suction, purification and discharge devices to ensure that the concentration of harmful substances discharged in the workplace meets the relevant requirements of TJ "Hygienic standard for the design of industrial enterprises" and GBJ "trial standard for the discharge of industrial" three wastes "

(11) when designing machines and equipment, safety colors should be used. Safety signs must be provided for the parts prone to danger. Safety colors and signs should be bright, clear and durable

(12) high temperature, extremely low temperature, strong radiation lines and other parts in the machine and equipment should be protected

(13) machines and equipment with electrical appliances should be well grounded (or connected to neutral) to prevent electric shock, and pay attention to anti-static

2. Preventive measures during installation and use

(1) install the machine and equipment according to the instructions and technical data provided by the manufacturer. Self made machines and equipment should also meet the requirements of GB general principles for safety and health design of production equipment

(2) according to the principle of "three Simultaneities" of safety and health, necessary safety protection devices, such as protective fence, safety console, etc., shall be set when installing machinery and equipment

(3) the equipment supervisor or relevant departments shall formulate and implement the equipment operation procedures, safety operation procedures and equipment maintenance system

3. Strengthen maintenance

(1) daily maintenance requires operators to carefully inspect and wipe all parts of machinery and equipment before and after each shift; Refuel on time and according to quality; Keep the equipment clean, lubricated and in good condition. During the shift, the machine and equipment shall be used in strict accordance with the operating procedures, the faults shall be eliminated in time, and the shift handover work shall be done well

(2) first level maintenance, mainly by operators, with the cooperation of maintenance workers, local disassembly and inspection of machinery and equipment; Clean the specified parts; Clean the oil filter, oil separator, oil pipe, oil hole, felt, oil line, etc., so that the oil circuit is smooth and the oil mark is eye-catching; Adjust the fitting clearance of each part of the equipment and firm each part

(3) level II maintenance, mainly maintenance workers, with the participation of operators, carry out targeted local disassembly inspection, repair or replace worn parts of the equipment to restore the accuracy locally; Clean and check the lubrication system and replace the aged oil; Check and repair electrical systems, safety devices, etc

4. Improve the working environment

(1) the ground of the workplace should be flat and clean, and there should be no pits, ditches, holes, etc; There shall be no water stains and oil stains to prevent tripping and slipping

(2) necessary space and channels should be reserved around the machine tool equipment, and the distance between them must meet the requirements of the corresponding minimum safety distance. The minimum safety distance can be referred to the following figures: when there is no working ground between the side of the machine tool and the wall or column, the distance is 400-500mm; When there is a working place, the spacing is 1000-1200mm; When there is no working place between machine tools, the spacing is 800mm; When there is a working place on one side of the machine tool and pedestrians pass regularly, the spacing is 1200mm; When there are working places on both sides of the machine tool, the spacing between the machine tools is 1500mm; When there are working places on both sides of the machine tool and pedestrians pass through, the spacing is 1800mm; The spacing of automatic machine tools arranged in 15 rows is 600-800mm.

(3) tools, workpieces, etc. shall be placed neatly, and finished products, semi-finished products and cutting machines shall be stacked for lifting and cleaning, without interfering with the work of the operator and adjacent machine tools. Finished products and semi-finished products should be stacked neatly and should not be too high

(4) in addition to the overall lighting, local lighting devices with sufficient illumination should be added according to different operating conditions. Lighting fixtures shall be arranged to avoid glare

(5) at the working point above 2m, necessary protective facilities and personal protective articles shall be provided according to the safety requirements of climbing operation

(6) in order to reduce the fatigue of the operator, the operation of abnormal posture should be avoided as far as possible. Reduce standing operation, and provide a seat or workbench with adjustable height, so that human hands and feet can be placed and stretched freely

(7) there should be enough passages in the workshop, and no workpieces, garbage cans and other objects should be placed on the passages to ensure that the passages are clean and unobstructed. It is best to paint with different colors. In addition, these areas need to be often painted with anti rust engine oil to draw a striking boundary line to mark the passage, working surface and material storage place

5. Management measures

(1) implement relevant rules and regulations

(2) strengthen inspection and supervision

(3) strengthen safety and health supervision

is one of the earliest environmentally friendly plastic packaging materials in the market. Mechanical safety supervision belongs to the professional supervision of labor safety. When supervising and inspecting machines and special equipment, you can start with the technical management system of these equipment, that is, check:

safety technical operation procedures of machinery and special equipment

shift handover system

post system

maintenance system of equipment, molds and safety devices

registration and reporting system of equipment and personal accidents

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